In ancient times the land to the south of Egypt was generally known as Nubia: the sub-province from Aswan to the Second Cataract on the Nile was Wawat (Lower Nubia) and beyond that was the sub-province of Kush (Upper Nubia). From earliest times, the Egyptian had sought to colonise and exploit Nubia to gain access to the region's products and to use it as a thoroughfare to obtain the commodities of central Africa.
    By the Archaic Period, the Egyptians had annexed the region around Elephantine to Upper Egypt and fixed their own frontier at the First Cataract; King *Djer of the First Dynasty led his army as far as the Second Cataract. In the Old Kingdom, the pharaohs sent an increasing number of commercial expeditions to Nubia, with supporting military force where necessary; inscriptions in the Aswan rock-tombs of the governors of Elephantine are particularly informative about these ventures.
    One governor, Harkhuf, describes his trading expedition to Nubia, which was probably undertaken partly by river and partly overland by donkey, to bring back incense, ivory, ebony, oil and panther skins. Nubia was also an important source for the hard stone that the Egyptians required for their monumental buildings but, in the Middle Kingdom, the region began to be extensively exploited for its gold supplies. Even the name 'Nubia' is derived from the Egyptian word meaning 'gold'.
    The expeditions of the Sixth Dynasty ceased during the troubled years of the First Intermediate Period but under the Middle Kingdom rulers, Nubia was properly colonised and Lower Nubia was conquered as far as Semna to the south of the Second Cataract. *Sesostris III is remembered particularly for his expeditions to Nubia and his consolidation of the area. *Sesostris I and *Sesostris III safeguarded the frontier with a string of brick fortresses between Semna South and Buhen at the Second Cataract.
    The Nubians became powerful and independent when the *Hyksos ruled Egypt, and they assisted the *Hyksos in their attempt to hold Egypt. The kings of the Eighteenth Dynasty made the repossession of Nubia one of their top priorities on account of the importance of its raw materials. *Tuthmosis I extended Egypt's control to its furthermost point beyond the Fourth Cataract, and *Tuthmosis III established the last major outpost at Napata, near the Fourth Cataract. The new frontier required additional fortresses, since the old Middle Kingdom ones had now lost much of their military significance, and several were established including those at Sai, Sedeinga, Sulb and Napata.
    The whole area south of the First Cataract was now administered for the pharaoh by a Viceroy, who was not a royal relative; in the mid-Eighteenth Dynasty his area also included the three southernmost nomes of Upper Egypt. In the reign of *Tuthmosis IV, the Viceroy became entitled 'King's Son of Kush.' His main duty was to obtain the natural resources of the area and to ensure that Nubia's yearly tribute was paid in gold and other goods such as ostrich plumes, leopard skins, animals, precious stones and slaves. The gold came mainly from the mines in Wawat and was worked by prisoners-of-war, slaves and convicted criminals. It was a government monopoly and arrived in Egypt as gold-dust stored in bags, or as bars or ingots.
    Egyptian power in Nubia was now at its height and some kings, such as *Amenophis III and *Ramesses II, established their personal cults there and received divine worship in magnificent temples. The Nilotic people of Nubia adopted Egyptian religion, customs and writing and, for some time the pharaohs sent expeditions to Nubia only to fight the tribesmen on the desert fringes. For centuries, the Nubians provided auxiliary forces for Egypt's army, and as the '*Medjay', they helped to police Egypt.
    In the New Kingdom, the Egyptians came into direct contact for the first time with the negro peoples of Central Africa and depicted them in their art. Ultimately the Nubians reversed the process of Egyptian conquest and colonisation when, in the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, they briefly became the rulers of Egypt.
BIBL. Save-Soderbergh, T. Agypten und Nubien. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte altagyptischer Aussenpolitik. Lund: 1941; Giorgini, M.S. Soleb. Kush 6 (1958) pp. 82-98; 7 (1959) pp. 154-70; Reisner, G.A. The Archaeological Survey of Nubia (Report for 1907-8). (two vols) Cairo: 1910; Kirwan, L.P. Studies in the later history of Nubia. Liverpool Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 24 (1937) pp. 69-105; Emery, W.B. Egypt in Nubia. London: 1965.
Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt by Rosalie and Antony E. David

Ancient Egypt. A Reference Guide. . 2011.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nubians — Infobox Ethnic group group=Nubians poptime=495,000 popplace=flagcountry|Egypt flagcountry|Sudan rels=Sunni Islam, Coptic Christianity langs=Nobiin, Egyptian Arabic, Sudanese Arabic related=The Nubians (Arabic: نوبي, Nuubi) are an ethnic group… …   Wikipedia

  • Nubians — Les Nubians Les Nubians Les Nubians Pays d’origine  France / …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Nubians — n. native or inhabitant of Nubia; native language of the region in northeastern Africa between Egypt and Sudan adj. of or pertaining to Nubia or its inhabitants, of or pertaining to the Nubian language …   English contemporary dictionary

  • The Nubians of Plutonia — Nubians of Plutonia Studio album by Sun Ra and his Myth Science Arkestra Released c.1966 …   Wikipedia

  • Les Nubians — Pays d’origine  France / …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Les Nubians — is the Afropean R B Grammy nominated duo composed of sisters Hélène (born 1974) and Célia Faussart (born 1978) from Paris, France. Their mother is Cameroonian and their father is French. In 1985 the sisters moved with their parents to Chad. Seven …   Wikipedia

  • Sudan, history of the — Introduction       history of the area from prehistoric and ancient times to the present. Ancient Nubia  The earliest inhabitants of what is now The Sudan can be traced to African peoples who lived in the vicinity of Khartoum in Mesolithic times… …   Universalium

  • Nubian people — For the breed of goat of the same name, see Anglo Nubian. Nubians Total population 1.7 million speakers of Nubian languages (SIL estimate as of 1996) Regions with significant …   Wikipedia

  • Nubia — This article is about the region in Africa, for other uses see Nubia (disambiguation). The Nubia region today Nubia is a region along the Nile river, which is located in northern Sudan and southern Egypt. There were a number of small Nubian… …   Wikipedia

  • Islam in Sudan — Sudan is a religiously mixed country, although Muslims have dominated national government institutions since independence in 1956. Statistics indicate that the Muslim population is approximately 75% 80%, [Identity Politics: Filling the Gap… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”